Marine Mammal Observers (MMOs) respectively Protected Species Observers (PSOs) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring systems (PAMs) are especially needed to detect the presence of marine mammals or any other protected species during seismic surveys.
GRAVIONIC provides MMOs respectively PSOs for the purposes of scientific research and also to ensure that industrial operations will be compliant with the guidelines of
The aim is to minimize acoustic disturbance to marine mammals and other protected species from seismic surveys.
Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) means detecting and logging animals by listening to their vocalizations (e.g. dolphin and beaked whale echolocation). There are obvious advantages to adopting acoustic monitoring in conjunction with visual monitoring, to try and detect unseen animals during daylight or during periods of darkness, poor visibility weather and unfavourable sea state conditions. PAM is an important part of the existing precautions for minimizing acoustic disturbance to marine mammals and other species. Examples of acoustic disturbance include geophysical seismic surveys and wind farm piling operations.